For Scholarly Research


Black Islam Resources

This project is curated by Kayla Renée Wheeler and was inspired by Prof. Najeeba Syeed-Miller, #BlackInMSA, and Muslim ARC.  The goal of this project is to provide teachers, professors, researchers, journalists, and people interested in learning more about Islam with resources on Black Muslims to promote a more inclusive approach to the study of Islam.



Islam in the Americas


Sultana Afroz, “From Moors to Marronage: The Islamic Heritage of the Maroons in Jamaica”, Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs, 19/2 (1999), pp. 161-179

Sultana Afroz, “Invisible Yet Invincible: The Muslim Ummah in Jamaica”, Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs, 23/1 (2003), pp. 211-222

Hishaam Aidi, “Jihadis in the Hood: Race, Urban Islam and the War on Terror”

Zaheer Ali, “Return to Roots: African Americans Return to Islam through Many Paths”, Islamic Horizons (July/August 2005), pp. 16-35.

Herbert Berg, “Mythmaking in the African American Muslim Context: The Moorish Science Temple, the Nation of Islam, and the American Society of Muslims”, Journal of the American Academy of Religion, 73/3 (2005), pp. 685-703.

James L. Conyers, Jr. and Abul Pitre (editors), Africana Islamic Studies (2016)

Ashon Crawley, Peace in Sapelo: On Black Islam and Black Christianity”, Hampton Institution,

Edward E. Curtis IV, Muslims in America: A Short History (2009)

Robert Danin, Black Pilgrimage to Islam (2005)

Expressions of Islam in Contemporary African American Communities, The Fourth Annual Prince Alwaleed Bin Talal Islamic Studies Conference (April 7-8, 2012)

Kambiz GhaneaBassiri, A History of Islam in America: From the New World to the New World Order (2010)

Michael Gomez, Black Crescent: The Experience and Legacy of African Muslims in the Americas (2005)

Manning Marable and Hishaam Aidi (editors), Black Routes to Islam (2009)

Aminah McCloud, African American Islam (1994).

Kathleen Malone O’Connor, “The Islamic Jesus: Messiahhod and Human Divinity in African American Muslim Exegesis”, Journal of the American Academy of Religion, 66/3 (Autumn 1998), pp. 493-532

Abdul Noor, The Supreme Understanding: The Teachings of Islam in North America (2002)

Richard Brent Turner, Islam in the African-American Experience (2003)


Enslaved Africans


Muhammed Abdullah al-Ahari, Bilali Muhammad: Muslim Jurisprudist in Antebellum Georgia (2010)

Sultana Afroz, “The Role of Islam in the Abolition of Slavery and in the Development of British Capitalism”, The American Journal of Islamic Social Sciences, 29/1, pp. 1-29

Muhammad A. Al-Ahari (editor), Five Classic Muslim Slave Narratives (2011)

Allan D. Austin, African Muslims in Antebellum America: A Sourcebook (1984)

Allan D. Austin, African Muslims in Antebellum America: Transatlantic Stories and Spiritual Struggles (1997)

Manuel Barcia, “West African Islam in Colonial Cuba”, Slavery & Abolition, 35/2 (2014) pp. 292-305

Khaled A. Beydoun, “Antebellum Islam”, Howard Law Journal, 58/1 (2014)

Ray Crook, “Bilali-The Old Man of Sapelo Island: Between Africa and Georgia”, Wadabagei: A Journal of the Caribbean and Its Diaspora, 10/2 (Spring 2007), pp. 40-55

Robert O. Collins, “The African Slave Trade to Asia and the Indian Ocean Islands”, African and Asian Studies, 5/3-4 (2006), pp. 325-347

Sylviane A. Diouf, Servants of Allah: African Muslims Enslaved in the Americas, 15th Anniversary Edition (2013)

Chouki el Hamel, Black Morocco: A History of Slavery, Race, and Islam (2012)

Allan G.B. Fisher and Humphrey J. Fisher, Slavery and Muslim Society in Africa (1971)

Paul E. Lovejoy, “The Urban Background of Enslaved Muslims in the Americas”, Slavery & Abolition: A Journal of Slave and Post-Slave Studies, 26/3 (2005), pp. 349-376.

Patrick Manning, Slavery and African Life: Occidental, Oriental, and African Slave Trades (1990)

Precious Rasheeda Muhammad, “An African Muslim Prince Goes to Boston in 1828”

Precious Rasheeda Muhammad, “‘Oh, Allah, Operate on Us!’: Islam and the LEgacy of American Slavery in Michael Wolfe (ed.), Taking Back Islam: AMerican Muslims Reclaim Their Faith (Rodale Press, 2002), pp. 129-135

 João José Reis (translated by Arthur Brakel), Slave Rebellion in Brazil: The Muslim Uprising of 1835 in Bahia (1995)

Ronald Segal, Islam’s Black Slaves: The Other Black Diaspora (2001)

Richard Brent Turner, “African Muslim Slaves and Islam in Antebellum America”, in Juliane Hammer and Omid Safi (eds.), The Cambridge Companion to American Islam (2013), pp. 28-44

Terence Walz and Kenneth M. Cuno (editors), Race and Slavery in the Middle East: Histories of Trans-Saharan Africans in 19th-Century Egypt, Sudan, and the Ottoman Mediterranean (2011)

John Ralph Willis, Slaves and Slavery in Muslim Africa (1985)


The Moorish Science Temple of America


Ernest Allen Jr., “Identity and Destiny: The Formative Views of the Moorish Science Temple and the Nation of Islam” in Yvonne Yazbeck Haddad and John L. Esposito (ed.s), Muslims on the Americanization Path? (1998), pp. 163-214.

Patrick D. Bowen, “Abdul Hamid Suleiman and the Origins of the Moorish Science Temple”, Journal of Race, Ethnicity, and Religion, 2/13 (2011), pp. 1-54

Emily Clark, “Noble Drew Ali’s ‘Clean and Pure Nation’: The Moorish Science Temple, Identity, and Healing”, Nova Religio: The Journal of Alternative and Emergent Religions, 16/3 (2013), pp. 31-51

Edward E. Curtis IV, “Debating the Origins of the Moorish Science Temple: Toward a New Cultural History” in  Edward E. Curtis IV and Danielle Brune Sigler (ed.s), The New Black Gods: Arthur Huff Fauset and the Study of African American Religions (2009)

Spencer Dew, “Juanita Mayo Richardson Bey: Editor, Educator, and Poetic Visionary of First-Generation Moorish Science,” Journal of Africana Religions, 2/2 (2014), pp. 184-210

Arthur Huff Fauset, Black Gods of the Metropolis: Negro Religious Cults of the Urban North (1970)

Susan Nance, “Mystery of the Moorish Science Temple: Southern Blacks and American Alternative Spirituality in 1920s Chicago”, Religion and American Culture: A Journal of Interpretation, 12/2 (Summer 2002), pp. 123-166

Susan Nance, “Respectability and Representation: The Moorish Science Temple, Morocco, and Black Public Culture in 1920s Chicago”, American Quarterly, 54/4 (2002), pp. 623-659

Scott J. Varda, “Drew Ali and the Moorish Science Temple of America: A Minor Rhetoric of Black Nationalism”, Rhetoric and Public Affairs, 16/4 (Winter 2013), pp. 685-717


Nation of Islam


Amy Alexander (editor), The Farrakhan Factor: African-American Writers on Leadership, Nationhood, and Minister Louis Farrakhan (1998)

Zaheer Ali, “The Message and the Messenger: The Impact of Minister Louis Farrakhan and the Million Man March”, Koinonia 12 (Spring 2000), pp. 33-42

Ernest Allen Jr., “Religious Heterodoxy and Nationalist Tradition: The Continuing Evolution of the Nation of Islam”, The Black Scholar: Journal of Black Studies and Research, 26/3-4 (1996), pp. 1-34

Ernest Allen Jr., “Satokata Takahashi and the Flowering of Black Messianic Nationalism”, The Black Scholar, 24 (Winter 1994), pp. 23-46

Herbert Berg, Elijah Muhammad and Islam (2009)

Zoe Colley, “‘All America is a Prison’: The Nation of Islam and the Politicization of African American Prisoners, 1955-1965”, Journal of American Studies, 48/2 (May 2014), pp. 393-415

Malachi D. Crawford, Black Muslims and the Law: Civil Liberties from Elijah Muhammad to Muhammad Ali (2015)

Edward E. Curtis IV, Black Muslim Religion in the Nation of Islam, 1960-1975 (2006)

E.U. Essien-Udom, Black Nationalism and the Search for Identity (1995)

Karl Evanzz, The Messenger: The Rise and Fall of Elijah Muhammad (2001)

Fatima Fanusie, Fard Muhammad in Historical Context (2014),

Mattias Gardell, In the Name of Elijah Muhammad: Louis Farrakhan and the Nation of Islam (1996)

Mattias Gardell, “The Sun of Islam Will Rise in the West: Minister Farrakhan and the Nation of Islam in the Latter Days” in Yvonne Yazbeck Haddad and Jane Idleman Smith (eds.), Muslim Communities in North America (1994), pp. 15-50

Dawn-Marie Gibson, A History of the Nation of Islam: Race, Islam, and the Quest for Freedom (2012)

Dawn-Marie Gibson, “Nation Women’s Engagement and Resistance in the Muhammad Speaks Newspaper”, Journal of American Studies, 49/1 (Feb. 2015), pp. 1-18

Dawn-Marie Gibson and Jamillah Karim, Women of the Nation: Between Black Protest and Sunni Islam (2014)

Bayyinah S. Jeffries, A Nation Can Rise No Higher Than Its Women: African American Muslim Women in the Movement for Black Self Determination, 1950-1975 (2014).

Jamillah Karim, “Profile: The Leadership and Legacy of Sister Clara Muhammad”, Sapelo Square (Feb 1 2016)

Jamillah Karim, “Through Sunni Women’s Eyes: Black Feminism and the Nation of Islam,” Souls: A Critical Journal of Black Politics, Culture, and Society (2006), 8/4, pp. 19-30

Latino & Muslim: A Conversation with Minister Abel Muhammad

Marta F. Lee, The Nation of Islam, An American Millenarian Movement (1988)

C. Eric Lincoln, Black Muslims in America, 3rd ed. (1994)

Louis Lomax, When the Word is Given (1963)  

Clifton E. Marsh, From Black Muslims to Muslims: The Transition from Separatism to Islam, 1930-1980 (1984)

Clifton E. Marsh, The Lost-Found Nation of Islam in America (2000)

Warith D. Muhammad, As the Light Shineth from the East (1980)

Bradley Price Roderick, “A Brief Look at the Roots and Development of the Nation of Islam”

Michael Saahir, The Honorable Elijah Muhammad: The Man Behind the Men (2011)

Ula Taylor, “Elijah Muhammad’s Nation of Islam: Separatism, Regendering, and a Secular Approach to Black Power after Malcolm X (1965-1975)”, in Jeanne Theoharis and Komozi Woodard (eds.), Freedom North: Black Freedom Struggles Outside the South, 1940-1980 (2003), pp. 177-198

Nuri Tinaz, “Black Islam in Diaspora: The Case of Nation of Islam (NOI) in Britain”, Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs, 26/2 (2006), pp. 151-170

Dennis Walker, Islam and the Search for African American Nationhood: Elijah Muhammed, Louis Farrakhan, and the Nation of Islam (2005)

Cynthia S’thembile West “Revisiting Female Activism in the 1960s: The Newark Branch of Nation of Islam”, The Black Scholar: Journal of Black Studies and Research, 26/3-4 (1996), pp. 41-48


Malcolm X   (also see Biography section)


Saladin Ambar, Malcolm X at Oxford Union: Racial Politics in a Global Era (2014)

Donna A. Auston, “UPenn: The Legacy of Malcolm X”

Magnus O. Bassey, Malcolm X and African American Self-Consciousness (2005)

Richard D. Benson II, Fighting for Our Place in the Sun: Malcolm X and the Radicalization of the Black Student Movement, 1960-1973 (2014)

Jan R. Carew, Ghosts in Our Blood: With Malcolm X in Africa, England, and the Caribbean (1994)

Claude Clegg, “Malcolm X and Elijah Muhammad”, in Robert. E. Terrill, Cambridge Companion to Malcolm X (2010), pp. 10-25

Rita Kiki Edozie and Curtis Stokes (editors), Malcolm X’s Michigan Worldview: An Exemplar for Contemporary Black Studies (2015)

Juan M. Flyod-Thomas, “Gaining One’s Definition: The (De)Chrirstianization of Malcolm X’s Life and Legacy”, Journal of Africana Religions, 3/1 (2015_, pp. 44-61

Y.N. Kly, The Black Book: The True Political Philosophy of Malcolm x (El Hajj Malik El Shabazz) (2015)

Louis Lomax, To Kill a Black Man (1968)

Theresa Perry (editor), Teaching Malcolm X (1995)

Randy Roberts and Johnny Smith, Blood Brothers: The Fatal Friendship Between Muhammad Ali and Malcolm X (2016)

William W. Sales, From Civil Rights to Black Liberation: Malcolm X and the Organization of Afro-American Unity (1999)

Robert. E. Terrill, Cambridge Companion to Malcolm X (2010)

Robert E. Terrill, Malcolm X: Inventing Racial Judgement (2007)

Eboni Marshall Turman, “‘The Greatest Tool of the Devil’ Mamie, Malcolm X, and the PolitiX of the Black Madonna in Black Churches and the Nation of Islam in the United States”, Journal of Africana Religions, 3/1 (2015), pp. 130-150


Five-Percent Nation/Nation of Gods and Earths (also check “Music” section)


Ahmon J. Keiler-Bradshaw, Voices of the Earth: A Phenomenological Study of Women in the Nation of Gods and Earths (2010), Master’s thesis

Michael Muhammad Knight, “The Five Percenters: Between Afrocentrism and Islam”

Felicia Miyakawa, “I Self Lord Am Master”,

Yusuf Nuruddin, “Ancient Black Astronauts and Extraterrestrial Jihads: Islamic Science Fiction as Urban Mythology”, Socialism and Democracy, 20/3 (2006), pp. 127-165

Yusuf Nuruddin, “The Five Percenters: A Teenage nation of Gods on Earth” in Yvonne Yazbeck Haddad and Jane Idleman Smith (eds.), Muslim Communities in North America (1994), pp. 109-132

Ted Swedenburg, “Islam in the Mix: Lessons of the Five Percent” (1997)


Dar ul-Islam Movement

Sh. Mahmoud Andrade Ibrahim al Amreeki, The Dar ul Islam Movement; An American Odyssey Revisited (2010)

Kamal Hassan Ali, Dar-ul-Islam: Principle, Praxis, Movement (2010)

R.M. Mukhtar Curtis, “Urban Muslims: The Formation of Dar ul-Islam Movement”, in Yvonne Yazbeck Haddad and Jane Idleman Smith (eds.), Muslim Communities in North America (1994), pp. 51-74


Diasporic Linkages

Zain Abdullah, Black Mecca: The African Muslims of Harlem (2010)

Hishaam Aidi, “‘Let Us Be Moors”: Islam, Race and ‘Connected Histories’”, Middle East Research and Information Project, 229

Habeeb Akande, Illuminating the Blackness: Blacks and African Muslims in Brazil (forthcoming)

Omar H. Ali, “Islam and the African Diaspora in the Indian Ocean World”,

Cheikh Anta Babou, “Brotherhood Solidarity, Education and Migration: The Role of the Dahiras Among the Murid Muslim Community of New York”, African Affairs, 101/403, pp. 151-170

Beeta Baghoolizadeh, “The Afro-Iranian Community: Beyond Haji Firuz Blackface, the Slave Trade, & Bandari Music”,

Anne K. Bang, Islam Sufi Networks in the Western Indian Ocean (c. 1880-1940): Riples of Reform (2014)

William Banks, The Black Muslims: African American Achievers (1996)

Moustafa Bayoumi, “East of the Sun (West of the Moon): Islam, the Ahmadis, and African America”, Journal of Asian American Studies, 4/3 (2001), pp. 251-263

Susan Beckerleg, “African Bedouin in Palestine”, Asian and African Studies 6 (2007)

Rima Berns-McGowan, Muslims in the Diaspora: The Somali Communities of London and Toronto (1999)

Patrick D. Bowen, “Satti Majid; A Sudanese Founder of American Islam”, Journal of Africana Religions, 1/2 (2013), pp. 194-209

Patrick D. Bowen, “The Search for ‘Islam’: African-American Islamic Groups in NYC, 1904-1954”, The Muslim World, 102/2 (April 2012), pp. 264-283

Interview with Joseph Braude, “Africans in the Arabian (Persian) Gulf”

Beth Buggenhagen, Muslims Families in Global Senegal: Money Takes Care of Shame (2012)

Donald Martin Carter, States of Grace: Senegalese in Italy and the New European Immigration (University of MInnesota Press, 1997)

Amy Catlin-Jairazbhoy, “Sacred Pleasure, Pain and Transformation in African Indian Sidi Sufi Ritual and Performance”, Performing Islam, 1/1 (2012), pp. 73-101

Amy Catlin-Jairazbhoy and Edward A. Alpers (editors), Sidis and Scholars: Essays on African Indians (2000)

Edward E. Curtis IV, The Call of Bilal: Islam in the African Diaspora (2014)

Edward E. Curtis IV, “The Ghawarna of Jordan: Race and Religion in the Jordan Valley”, Journal of Islamic Law and Culture, 13/2-3 (2011), pp. 193-209

JoAnn D’Alisera, An Imagined Geography: Sierra Leonean Muslims in America (2004)

Sohail Daulatzai, Black Star, Crescent Moon: The Muslim International and Black Freedom beyond America (2012)

Sohail Daulatzai, “To the East, Blackwards: Bandung Hopes, Diasporic Dreams, and Black/Muslim Encounters in Sam Greenlee’s Baghdad Blues”, Souls: A Critical Journal of Black Politics, 8/4 (Fall 2006)

Mmadou Diouf and Rendall Steven, “The Senegalese Murid Trade Diaspora and the Making of a Vernacular Cosmopolitanism”, Public Culture, 12/3 (2000), pp. 679-702

Sylviane A. Diouf, “African Muslims in the Caribbean”, Wadabagei: A Journal of the Caribbean and Its Diaspora, 11/1(Winter 2008), pp. 83-95

Cathlene Dollar, “An ‘African’ Tarika in Anatolia” Notes on the Tijaniyya in Early Republican Turkey”, Annual Review of Islam in Africa, 11 (2012), pp. 30-34

Michael A. Gomez, “Africans, Culture, and Islam in the Lowcountry” in Philip Morgan (ed.), African American Life in the Georgia Lowcountry (2011) pp. 103-130

Budour Youssef Hassan, “African-Palestinian Community’s Deep Roots in Liberation Struggle”, The Electronic Intifada (2015)

John C. Hawley (editor), India in Africa, Africa in India: Indian Ocean Cosmopolitans (2008)

John O. Hunwick and Eve Troutt Powell, The African Diaspora in the Mediterranean Lands of Islam (2001)

Faaeza Jasdanwalla, “African Settles on the West Coast of India: The Sidi Elite of Janjira”, African and Asian Studies, 10/1 (2011), pp. 41-58

Mayke Kaag, “Transnational Elite Formation: The Senegalese Murid Community in Italy”, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 39/9 (2013), pp. 1425-1439

Brian Kamanzi and Idil Isse, “[Podcast] In Konversation: Reflecting on S. Africa, Unravelling Identity, a Somali in the Diaspora”,

Ousmane Oumar Kane, The Homeland is the Arena: Religion, Transnationalism, and Integration of Senegalese Immigrants in America (Oxford University Press, 2011)

Christine Kolars, “Masjid ul-Mutkabir: The Portrait of an African American Orthodox Muslim Community”, in Yvonne Yazbeck Haddad and Jane Idleman Smith (eds.), Muslim Communities in North America (1994),

Victoria J. Lee, “The Mosque and Black Islam: Towards an Ethnographic Study of Islam in the Inner City”, Ethnography, 11/1 (March 2010), pp. 145-163

“Meet the Flourishing Muslim Community in Buenaventura, Colombia”, Global Voices (Nov. 3 2015)

Michael Nash, Islam Among Urban Blacks. Muslims in Newark, New Jersey: A Social History (2008)

Lisa Gail Omanson, African-American and Arab American Muslim Communities in the Detroit Ummah (2013)

Samory Rashid, “The Islamic Origins of Spanish Florida’s Ft. Musa”, Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs, 21/2 (2001), pp. 209-226

Richard Reddie, Black Muslims in Britain (2009)

Bruce Riccio, “Transnational Mouridism and the Afro-Muslim Critique of Italy”, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 30/5 (2004), pp. 929-944

Carolyn Rouse and Janet Hoskins, “Purity, Soul Food, and Sunni Islam: Explorations at the Intersection of Consumption and Resistance”, Cultural Anthropology, 19/2 (2004), pp. 226-249

Rita Sobczyk and Rosa Soriano, “Beyond ‘Mouridcentrism’: Lived Islam in the Context of Senegalese Migrations”, African Diaspora, 8/2 (2015), pp. 174-199

Marja Tiilikainen “Somali Women and Daily Islam in the Diaspora”, Social Compass, 50/1 (2003), pp. 59-69


Islam on the African Continent


Zain Abdullah, “Negotiating Identities: A History of Islamization in Black West AFrica”, Journal of Islamic Law and Culture, 10/1 (2008), pp. 5-18

Habeeb Akande, Illuminating the Darkness: Blacks and North Africans in Islam (2012)

Uthman Sayyid Ahmad Al-Bili, Some Aspects of Islam in Africa (Ithaca Press, 2007)

Abdullahi Ahmed An-Na’im, African Constitutionalism and the Role of Islam (2006)

Cheikh Anta Babou, Fighting the Greater Jihad: Amadu Bamba and the Founding of the Muridiyya of Senegal, 1852-1913 (2007)

Irit Back, “From the Colony to the Post-Colony: Sufis and Wahhabists in Senegal and Nigeria”, Canadian Journal of African Studies, 42/2-3 (Jan 2008), pp. 423-445

Pade Badru and Brigid M. Sackey (editors), Islam in Africa South of the Sahara: Essays in Gender Relations and Political Reform (Scarecrow Press, 2013)

Anne Bang, Sufis and Scholars of the Sea: Family Networks in East Africa, 1860-1925 (2003)

Diana Bell, “Understanding a ‘Broken World’: Islam, Ritual, and Climate Change in Mali, West Africa”, Journal for the Study of Religion, Nature, and Culture, 8/3 (2014)

Conerly Casey, “‘Marginal Muslims’: Politics and the Perceptual Bounds of Islamic Authenticity in Northern Nigeria”, Africa Today, 54/3 (Spring 2008), pp. 67-92

André Chappatte, “Night Life in Southern Urban Mali: Being a Muslim Maquisard in Bougouni”, Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, 20/3 (2014), pp. 526-544

Peter B. Clarke, West Africa and Islam: A study of Religious Development from the 8th to 20th Century (Edward ARnold, 1982)

Laura L. Cochrane, Weaving through Islam in Senegal (2013)

Patrick Desplat and Terje Ostebo (editors), Muslim Ethiopia: The Christian Legacy, Identity Politics, and Islamic Reformism (2013)

Souleymane Bachir Diagne, "Shaykh al-Hajj Abbass Sall: In Praise of the Tijaniya Order" in John Renard (ed.), Tales of God’s Friends. Islamic Hagiography in Translation (2009)

Afyare Abdi Elmi, Understanding the Somalia Conflagration: Identity, Political Islam and Peacebuilding (2010)

Jonathan Glassman, War of Words, War of Stone: Racial Thought and Violence in Colonial Zanzibar (2011)

Michael A. Gomez, Pragmatism in the Age of Jihad: The Precolonial State of Bundu (1992)

Rosalind I.J. Hackett and Benjamin F. Soares, New Media and Religious Transformations in Africa (2014)

Sean Hanretta, Islam and Social Change in French West Africa (Cambridge University Press, 2010)

Abdulai Iddrisu, Contesting Islam in Africa: Homegrown Wahhabism and Muslim Identity in Northern Ghana, 1920-2010 (2013)

Marinus C. Iwuchukwu, Muslim-Christian Dialogue in Post-Colonial Northern Nigeria: The Challenges of Inclusive Cultural and Religious Pluralism (2013)

Alusine Jalloh and David E. Skinner (editors), Islam and Trade in Sierra Leone (1997)  

Marloes Janson, Islam, Youth, and Modernity in the Gambia: The Tablighi Jama’at (2013)

Shamil Jeppie and Souleymane Bachir Diagne (editors), The Meanings of Timbuktu (2008)

Michelle C. Johnson, “‘The Proof is on My Palm’: Debating Ethnicity, Islam and Ritual in a New African Diaspora”, Journal of Religion in Africa, 36/1 (2006), pp. 50-77

Preben Kaarsholm, “Islam, Secularist Government, and State-Civil Society Interaction in Mozambique and South Africa since 1994”, Journal of Eastern African Studies, 9/3 (2015), pp. 468-487

Ousman Kobo, “The Development of Wahhabi Reforms in Ghana and Burkina Faso, 1960-1990: Elective Affinities between Western-Educated Muslims and Islamic Scholars”, Comparative Studies in Society and History, 51/3 (2009), pp. 502-532

Ousman Murzik Kobo, “Shifting Trajectories of Salafi/Ahl-Sunna Reformism in Ghana”, Islamic Africa, 6/1-2 (2015), pp. 60-81

Graziano Kratli and Ghislaine Lydon (editors), The Trans-Saharan Book Trade: Manuscript, Arabic Literacy and Intellectual History in Muslim Africa (2011)

Robert Launay, Beyond the Stream: Islam and Society in a West African Town (2004)

Mara A. Leichtman, Shi’i Cosmopolitanisms in Africa: Lebanese Migration and Religious Conversion in Senegal (2015)

Nehemia Levtzion and Randall L. Pouwels (editors), History of Islam in Africa (2000)

Roman Loimeier, Islamic Reform and Political Change in Northern Nigeria (Northwestern University Press, 2011)

Roman Loimeier, Muslim Societies in Africa: A Historical Anthropology (Indiana University Press, 2013)

Paul Lovejoy, Ecology and Ethnography of Muslim Trade in West Africa (Africa World Press, 2005)

Wendell Hassan Marsh, “Dehistoricizing Islam in Africa”, Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East, 35/3 (2015), pp. 656-666

B.G. Martin, Muslim Brotherhoods in 19th-century Africa (2003)

Janet McIntosh, The Edge of Islam: Power, Personhood, and Ethnoreligious Boundaries of the Kenya Coast (2009)

E. Mirmotahari, Islam in the Eastern African Novel (2011)

Arye Oded, Islam and Politics in Kenya (2000)

Charlotte A. Quinn and Frederick Quinn, Pride, Faith, and Fear: Islam in Sub-Saharan Africa (2003)

Eve Troutt Powell, A Different Shade of Colonialism: Egypt, Great Britain, and the Mastery of the Sudan (2003)

Elisha P. Renne, “The Hijab as a Moral Space in Northern Nigeria” in  Karen Tranberg Hansen and D. Soyini Madison (eds.), African Dress: Fashion, Agency, Performance (2013), pp. 92-110

David Robinson, Muslim Societies in African History: New Approaches to African History (2004)

Lamin O. Sanneh, The Crown and the Turban: Muslims and West African Pluralism (1997)

Gunther Schlee with Abdullahi A. Shongolo, Islam and Ethnicity in Northern Kenya and Southern Ethiopia (2012)

Judith Scheele, “A Pilgrimage to Arawan: Religious Legitimacy, Status, and Ownership in Timbuktu”, American Ethnologist, 40/1 (2013), pp. 165-181

Dorothea E. Schulz, Muslims and New Media in West Africa: Pathways to God (2011)

Ahmad Alawad Sikainga, Slaves into Workers:  Emancipation and labor in Colonial Sudan (1996)

Benjamin Soares, Islam and the Prayer Economy: History and Authority in a Malian Town (2005)

Abdoulaye Sounaye, “Mobile Sunna: Islam, Small Media and Community in Niger”, Social Compass, 61/1 (March 2014), pp. 21-29

Emilio Spadola, The Calls of Islam: Sufis, Islamists, and Mass Mediation in Urban Morocco (2014)

John Thornton, Africa and Africans in the Making of the Atlantic World: 1400-1680 (1993)

Alex Thurston, “Muslim Politics and Shari’a in Kano State, Northern Nigeria”, African Affairs, 114/454 (2015), pp. 28-51

Richard Brent Turner, “Edward Wilmot Blyden and PanAfricanism: The Ideological Roots of Islam and Black Nationalism in the United States”, The Muslim World, 87/2 (1997), pp. 169-182

Goolam Vahed, “Contesting ‘Orthodoxy’: The Tablighi-Sunni Conflict among South African Muslims in the 1970s and 1980s”, Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs, 23/2 (2003), pp. 313-334.

Holger Weiss, Social Welfare in Muslim Societies in Africa (2002)

Katherine Wiley, “Fashioning People, Crafting Networks: Multiple Meanings in the Mauritanian Veil (Malahfa)” in Karen Tranberg Hansen and D. Soyini Madison (eds.), African Dress: Fashion, Agency, Performance (2013), pp. 77-91




Jean Boyd, “Distance Learning from Purdah in Nineteenth-century Northern Nigeria: The Work of Asma’u Fodiyo”, Journal of African Cultural Studies, 14/1 (2001), pp. 7-22

Louis Brenner, Controlling Knowledge: Religion, Power, and Schooling in a West African Muslim Society (2001)

Bruce A. Collet, “Islam, National Identity and Public Secondary Education: Perspectives form the Somali Diaspora in Toronto, Canada”, Race Ethnicity and Education, 10/2 (2007), pp. 131-153

Shirin Edwin, “Shaping Futures and Feminisms: Qur’anic Schools in West African Francophone Fiction”, Gender and Education, 23/7 (2011), pp. 873-888

Hannah Hoechner, “Porridge, Piety and Patience: Young Qur’anic Students’ Experiences of Poverty in Kano, Nigeria”, Africa, 85/02 (2015), pp. 269-288

Mbaye Lo and Muhammed Haron (eds.), Muslim Institutions of Higher Education in Postcolonial Africa (2015)

Adeline Masquelier, “Qur’an Schooling and the Production of Mindful Bodies in West Africa”, Journal of Africana Religions, 3/2 (2015), pp. 184-192

Geert Mommersteeg, In the City of Marabouts: Islamic Culture in West Africa (Waveland Press, 2011)

Zakiyyah Muhammad, “Clara Muhammad Schools” in Faustine Childress Jones-Wilson (ed.), Encyclopedia of African American Education (1996) p. 307-308.

Zakiyyah Muhammad, “The Dilemma of Islamic Education in America, Possible Solutions.” Muslim Education Quarterly, 7/4 (1990), pp. 27-35.

Zakiyyah Muhammad, “Islamic Education in America: An Historical Overview with Future Projections”, Religion and Education, 25/1&2 (Winter 1998), pp. 87-96.

Zakiyyah Muhammad, “Faith and Courage to Educate Our Own: Reflections on Islamic Schools in the African American Community” in Joyce E. King (ed.), Black Education: A Transformative Research and Action Agenda for the New Century (2005), pp. 261-279.

Zakiyyah Muhammad, “Islamic Schools in the United States: Perspectives of Identity, Relevance and Governance” in Philippa Strum and Danielle Tarantolo (eds.), Muslims in the United States – Demography, Beliefs Institutions (Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, 2003), p. 95-112.

David Owusu-Ansah; Abdulai Iddrisu; and Mark Sey; Islamic Learning, The State and the Challenges of Education in Ghana (2013)

Hakim M. Rashid and Zakiyyah Muhammad, “The Sister Clara Muhammad Schools: Pioneers in the Development of Islamic Education in America”, The Journal of Negro Education, 61/2 (Spring 1992), pp. 178-185

David E. Skinner, “Conversion to Islam and the Promotion of ‘Modern’ Islamic Schools in Ghana”, Journal of Religion in Africa, 43/ (2013), pp. 426-450

Rudolph T. Ware III, The Walking Qur’an: Islamic Education, Embodied Knowledge, and History in West Africa (2014)


Black Muslim Thought


Ibrahim Abdul-Matin, Green Deen: What Islam Teaches about Protecting the Planet (2010)

Jamil Al-Amin, Revolution by the Book: The Rap is Live (1993)

Margari Aziza, “The Relevance of Black American Muslim Thought” (2013)

Herbert Berg, “Early African American Muslim Movements and the Qur’an”, The Journal of Qur’anic Studies, 8/1 (2006), pp. 22-37

Edward E. Curtis IV, Islam in Black America: Identity, Liberation, and Difference in African-American Islamic Thought (2002)

Sherman Jackson, Islam and the BlackAmerican:  Looking Toward the Third Resurrection (2011).

Sherman Jackson, Islam and the Problem of Black Suffering (2014)

Ousmane Oumar Kane, Beyond Timbuktu: An Intellectual History of Muslim West Africa (Harvard University Press, 2016)

Aminah Beverly McCloud, “African-American Muslim Intellectual Thought”, he Story of Islamophobia”, Souls: A Critical Journal of Black Politics, Culture, and Society, 9/2 (2007), pp. 171-181

Hakeem Muhammad, “Why Black Muslims Need Liberation Theology”, Patheos (Oct 19, 2016)

Abdul-Rasheed Na’Allah, African Discourse in Islam, Oral Traditions, and Performance (2009)

Sabur Abdul-Salaam, Who Speaks for the Muslims in America: An Anthology  (2016- Sabur Abdul-Salaam)

Lamin Sanneh, Beyond Jihad: The Pacifist Tradition in West African Islam (Oxford University Press, 2016)

Zachary Valentine Wright, Living Knowledge in West African Islam: The Sufi Community of Ibrahim Niasse (2015


Identity Formation


Cawo M. Abdi, Elusive Jannah: The Somali Diaspora and a Borderless Muslim Identity (2015)

Zain Abdullah, “Sufis on Parade: The Performance of Black, African, and Muslim Identities”, Journal of the American Academy of Religion, 77/2 (2009), pp. 1999-237

Kristine J. Ajrouch and Abdi M. Kusow, “Racial and Religious Contexts” Situational Identities among Lebanese and Somali Muslim Immigrants”, Ethnic and Racial Studies, 30/1 (2007, pp. 72-94

Helene Basu, “Music and the Formation of Sidi Identity in Western India”, History Workshop Journal, 65/1(2008), pp. 161-178

Sylvia Chan-Malik, “‘Common Cause’: On the Black-Immigrant Debate and Constructing the Muslim America”, Journal of Race, Ethnicity, and Religion, 2/8 (May 2011), pp. 1-39

Edward E. Curtis IV “African-American Islamization Reconsidered: Black History Narratives and Muslim Identity”, Journal of American Academy of Religion, 73/3 (2005), pp. 659-684

Yunus Dumbe, “The Salafi Praxis of Constructing Religious Identity in Africa: A Comparative Perspective of the Growth of the Movements in Accra and Cape Town”, Islamic Africa, 2/2 (Winter 2011), pp. 87-116

Leena Habiballa, “Seeds of Sudanese Identity: Unsettling the Logic of Racialisation”


Jamillah Karim, “Between Immigrant Islam and Black Liberation: Young Muslims Inherit Global Muslim and African American Legacies”, The Muslim World, 95/4 (2005), pp. 497-513

Behnaz A. Mirzai, “African Presence in Iran: Identity and Its Reconstruction in the 19th and 20th Centuries”, Revue d’Histoire Outre-Mers, 89/33-37 (2002), pp. 229-246

Kiri Rupiah, “Authentically Black, Authentically Arab-A Roundtable on Afro-Arab Identity”, Afripop! (Feb. 4, 2016)

Ikhlas Saleem, “There’s Nothing Regular About Being Black and Muslim in America”, Buzzfeed (June 25, 2016)

Richard Brent Turner, “What Shall We Call Him: Islam and African-American Identity”, Journal of Religious Thought, 51/1 (1995), pp. 1-28.

Sharifa M. Zawawi, African Muslim Names: Images and Identities (1998)


Black Muslim Women


Sara Aceves, Ain’t I a Muslim Woman? African American Muslim Women Practicing “Multiple Critique” (2010)

Ousseina D. Alidou, Engaging Modernity: Muslim Women and the Politics of Agency in Postcolonial Niger (2011)

Ousseina D. Alidou, Muslim Women in Postcolonial Kenya: Leadership, Representation, and Social Change (2013)

Erin Augis, “Religion, religiousness, and Narrative: Decoding Women’s Practices in Senegalese Islamic Reform”, Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 51/3 (2012), pp. 429-441

Margari Aziza, “The Politics of Black Hair and Hijab”

Silvia Bruzzi and Meron Zeleke, “Contested Religious Authority: Sufi Women in Ethiopia and Eritrea”, Journal of Religion in Africa, 45/1 (2015), pp. 37-67

Barbara Callaway and Lucy Creevey, The Heritage of Islam: Women, Religion, and Politics in West Africa (1994)

Barbara J. Callaway, Muslim Hausa Women in Nigeria: Tradition and Change (1987)

Francesca Declich, “Transmission of Muslim Practices and Women’s Agency in Ibo Island and Pemba (Mozambique)”, Journal of Eastern African Studies, 7/4 (2013), pp. 588-606

Juliane Hammer, American Muslim Women, Religious Authority, and Activism: More Than a Prayer (2011).

Jamillah Karim, “Voices of faith, faces of beauty: connecting American Muslim women through Azizah” in Muslim Networks from Hajj to Hip Hop, eds. miriam cooke and Bruce Lawrence (2005).

Jamillah Karim, American Muslim Women: Negotiating Race, Class, and Gender within the Ummah (2009)

Beverly B. Mack and Jean Boyd, One Woman’s Jihad: Nana Asma’u, Scholar and Scribe (2000)

Debra Majeed, Polygyny: What it Means When African American Muslim Women Share their Husbands (2015)

Adeline Masquelier, Women and Islamic Revival in a West African Town (2009)

Aminah McCloud, “African-American Muslim Women”, in Yvonne Haddad (ed.), The Muslims of America (1991), pp. 177-187

Jan-Therese Mendes, Exploring Blackness from Muslim, Female, Canadian Realities: Founding Selfhood, (Re)Claiming Identity and Negotiating Belongingness within/against a Hostile Nation (2011)

Zakiyyah Muhammad, “Muslim African American Women: The Qur’an, Human Excellence and the Four Rivers,” in Lopez D. Matthews, Jr. and Kenvi C. Phillips (eds.), Liberating Minds, Liberating Society: Black Women in the Development of American Culture and Society, (Create Space Independent Publishing, 2014), p. 143-158.

Angela Odoms-Young, “Factors that Influence Body Image Representations of Black Muslim Women”, Social Science & Medicine, 66/12 (2008), pp. 2573-2584

Elisha P. Renne (editor), Veiling in Africa (2013)

Carolyn Moxley Rouse, Engaged Surrender: African American Women and Islam (2004).

Dorothea Schulz, “Renewal and Enlightenment: Muslim Women’s Biographic Narratives of Personal Reform in Mali”, Journal of Religion in Africa, 41/1 (2011), pp. 93-123

Abdoulaye Sounaye, “‘Go Find the Second Half of Your Faith with these Women!’: Women Fashioning Islam in Contemporary Niger”, The Muslim World, 101/3 (July 2011), pp. 539-554

Daa’iyah Taha, “The Sacred Journey: The Gift of Hajj”, in Gloria Wade-Gayles (ed.), My Soul is a Witness: African-American Women’s Spirituality, (2002), pp. 266-271

Amina Wadud, “Hajar: Of the Desert”


Sexuality and Gender


Zain Abdullah, “Narrating Muslim Masculinities: The Fruit of Islam and the Quest for Black Redemption”, Spectrum: A Journal on Black Men, 1/1 (2012, pp. 141-177

Erin Augis, Aïcha’s Sounith Hair Salon: Friendship, Profit, and Resistance in Dakar”, Islamic Africa, 5/2 (Fall 2014), pp. 199-224

Aaliyah Bilal, “The Million-Man March: A Black Muslim Feminist Response”

Britta Frede and Joseph Hill, “Introduction: En-gendering Islamic Authority in West Africa”, Islamic Africa, 5/2 (2014), pp. 131-165

Rudolf Pell Gaudio, Allah Made Us: Sex Outlaws in an Islamic African City (2009)

Sondra Hale, Gender Politics in Sudan:  Islamism, Socialism, and the State (Westview Press, 1997)

Joseph Hill “‘All Women are Guides’: Sufi Leadership and Womanhood among Taalibe Baay in Senegal”, Journal of Religion in Africa, 40/4 (2010), pp. 375-412

Joseph Hill, “Picturing Islamic Authority: Gender Metaphors and Sufi Leadership in Senegal”, Islamic Africa, 5/2 (Fall 2014), pp. 275-315

Susan F. Hirsch, Pronouncing and Preserving: Gender and the Discourses of Disputing in an African Islamic Court (1998)

Alaine S. Hutson, “Women, Men, and Patriarchal Bargaining in an Islamic Sufi Order: The Tijaniyya in Kano, Nigeria, 1937 to the Present”, Gender and Society, 15/5 (2001), pp. 734-753

Afdhere Jama, Being Queer and Somali: LGBT Somalis at Home and Abroad (2015)

Azmat Khan and Amina Waheed, “Meet America’s First Openly Gay Imam”

Jeffrey B. Leak, “Malcolm X and Black Masculinity in Process”, in Robert. E. Terrill, Cambridge Companion to Malcolm X (2010), pp. 51-62

Ebenezer Obadare, “Sex, Citizenship and the State in Nigeria: Islam, Christianity and Emergent Struggles Over Intimacy”, Review of African Political Economy, 42/143 (2015), pp. 62-76

Pamela Prickett,  “Negotiating Gendered Religious Space: The Particularities of Patriarchy in an African AMerican Mosque”, Gender & Society, 29/1 (2015), pp. 51-72

Kathryn A. Rhine, “She Lives Dangerously: Intimate Ethics, Grammatical Personhood, and HIV/AIDS in Islamic Northern Nigeria”, Africa Today, 61/4 (2015), pp. 84-103

Gwendolyn Zoharah Simmons, “Are We Up to the Challenge? The Need for a Radical Reordering of the Islamic Discourse on Women” in Omid Safi (ed.), Progressive Muslims; On Justice, Gender, and Pluralism (2006)

Erin E. Stiles and Katrina Daly Thompson (eds.), Gendered Lives in the Western Indian Ocean: Islam, Marriage, and Sexuality on the Swahili Coast (2015)

Katrina Daly Thompson, “How to be a Good Muslim Wife: Women’s Performance of Islamic Authority during Swahili Weddings”, Journal of Religion in Africa, 41/4 (2011), pp. 427-448

Richard Brent Turner, “Constructing Masculinity: Interactions between Islam and African-American Youth Since C. Eric Lincoln, The Black Muslims in America”, Souls: A Critical Journal of Black Politics, Culture, and Society, 8/4 (2006), pp. 31-44

Amina Wadud-Muhsin, “On Belonging as a Muslim Woman” in Gloria Wade-Gayles (ed.), My Soul is a Witness: African-American Women’s Spirituality (2002) pp. 253-265

Amina Wadud, Qur’an and Woman: Rereading the Sacred Text from a Woman’s Perspective, 2nd ed. (1999)


Constructions of Race and anti-Blackness


Layla Abdullah, “White Racial Rhetoric & Black American Muslims”

Sumayya Ahmed, “Islam is a Black American”, ISLAMiCommentary (Dec 11, 2015)

Syed Mustafa Ali, Towards an Islamic Decoloniality--Seminar 2 of 3

Abu Uthman Amr Ibn Bahr Al-Jahiz and Vincent J. Cornell (translator), Book of the Glory of the Black Race (1981)

“Black, Muslim, American: Interview with Dr. Jamillah Karim”, The Islamic Monthly (Feb. 27 2013)

John Austin, “How to be Black and Muslim in ‘Post-Racial’ America”, Beacon Broadside (Feb. 2014)

Maria Khwaja Bazi, “Black Muslim Americans: The Minority within a Minority”, Fair Observer (Feb. 22, 2016)

“Black, Muslim, American: Interview with Dr. Jamillah Karim”, The Islamic Monthly (Feb. 27 2013)


Edward W. Blyden, Christianity, Islam and the Negro Race (1994)

Isaac Butler, “Why is Othello Black?” Slate (Nov 11, 2015)

Moderated by Sylvia Chan-Malik, with Evelyn Alsultany, Su’ad Abdul Khabeer, and Maryam Kashani, “A Space for the Spiritual”: A Roundtable on Race, Gender, and Islam in the United States

Ruqayyah Daud, “Black in the Muslim Student Association”, Alt Muslimah (Dec 8, 2016)

Aisha Gani, “Here’s What Black Muslims Thought of ‘Muslims Like Us’”, Buzzfeed (Dec 19, 2016)

Bruce Hall, A History of Race in Muslim West Africa, 1600-1960 (2011)

Nadira Hangail, “Hamza Yusuf and the Dangers of Black Pathology”, Struggling Hijabi

Isra Amin Ibrahim, “How the Response to Delta Airline’s Islamophobia Normalizes Anti-Black Violence in Muslim Spaces”, Race Baitr (Dec 28, 2016)

Amina Inloes, “Racial ‘Othering’ in Shi’i Sacred History: Jawn ibn Huwayy the ‘African Slave’, and the Ethnicities of the Twelve Imams”, Journal of Shi’a Islamic Studies, 7/4 (Autumn 2014), pp. 411-439

Jamillah A. Karim, “To Be Black, Female, and Muslim: A Candid Conversation about Race in the American Ummah”, Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs, 26/2 (2006), pp. 225-233

Zeba Khan, “American Muslims have a Race Problem”

Makkah, “The Very Serious Function of Racism”

Mohamud Awil Mohamed, “Islam and Blackness: A Crossroads”, The Huffington Post (Sept 28, 2016)

Hakeem Muhammad, “Imam Hamza Yusuf & the Compound Ignorance of White Supremacy”, Patheos (Dec 27, 2016)

Hakeem Muhammad, “Is Kant better than the Qu’ran? A Black Muslim response”, Patheos (April 28, 2016)

Hussein Rashid and Precious Rasheeda Muhammad, “American Muslim (Un)Exceptionalism: #BlackLivesMatter and #BringBackOurGirls”, Journal of Africana Religions, 3/4 (2015), pp. 478-495

Dawud Walid, “History Relating to Muslims and ‘Blackness’”

“What is Muslim Cool-Race Relations-Dr. Su’ad Abdul Khabeer & Moutasem Atiya”, ImanWire Podcast (Dec 26, 2016)

Anas White, “A Black Muslim on #MuslimLivesMatter”




Jamal Ali, Black and Green: Black Insights for the Green Movement (2009)

Donna Auston, “Mapping the Intersections of Islamophobia and #BlackLivesMatter”

Donna A. Auston, “When Silence Says it All: Reflections on American Muslim Leadership and the Trayvon Martin Tragedy”

Zareena Grewal, “Lights, Camera, Suspension: Freezing the Frame on the Mahmoud Abdul-Rauf-Anthem Controversy”, Souls: A Critical Journal of Black Politics, Culture, and Society, 9/2 (2007), pp. 109-122

Joanna Harcourt-Smith, “Ameena Matthews-Full Interview: The Violence Interrupter”

Faatimah Knight, Black Churches Burning-Address at the Parliament of the World Religions, Emerging Leaders Plenary

Muna Mire, “Towards a Black Muslim Ontology of Resistance”, The New Inquiry (April 29, 2015)

Tariq Toure, “Not One Muslim Dime--Black Friday without Muslims: An Open Letter from Tariq Toure”, Muslim Matters (Nov 26, 2015)




Sara Abbas, “Why it Matters that Ahmed Mohamed is both Black and Muslim”, Huffington Post (Oct 20 2015)

Edward E. Curtis IV, “The Black Muslim Scare of the Twentieth Century: The History of State Islamophobia and Its Post-9/11 Variations” in Carl W. Ernst (ed.), Islamophobia in America: The Anatomy of Intolerance (2013), pp. 75-106

Hallima Docmanov, “Islamophobia will Never be the New Black, Muslim Girl (Sept 20, 2015)

“Faith in Times of Fear: How Muslim women are coping with backlash after recent events”, Al Jazeera (Dec 8 2015)

Margari Hill, “Islamophobia and Black American Muslims”, Huffington Post (Dec 15, 2015)

Jamillah Karim, “'My Cousin Is a Muslim': Black Families Against Islamophobia”, Huffington Post (Jan 8 2016)

Su’ad Abdul Khabeer, “The Peculiar Case of the Black American Islamophobe”, Huffington Post (Aug 8, 2011)

Hind Makki, “Unveiling Fear in a Time of Islamophobia”, Patheos (Dec 4, 2015),

Sajdah Nubee, “A Black Muslim Voice on Islamophobia”, Huffington Post (Dec 16, 2015)

Junaid Rana, “The Story of Islamophobia”, Souls: A Critical Journal of Black Politics, Culture, and Society, 9/2 (2007), pp. 148-161




Naseer Ahmad and Bakri Abedi, A Diamond of Africa: The Illustrious Life of African Ahmadi Sheikh Amri Abedi (2012)

Terry Alford, Prince Among Slaves: The Story of an African Prince Sold into Slavery in the American South, 30th Anniversary ed. (2007)

Thomas Bluett, Some Memoirs of the Life of Job, the Son of Solomon, the High Priest of Boonda in Africa Who was a Slave About Two Years in Maryland; and Afterwards Being Brought to England was Set Fee and Sent to His Native Land in the Year 1734 (1734)

Herb Boyd and Ilyasah Al-Shabazz (editors), The Diary of Malcolm X: El-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz, 1964 (2014)

Claude A. Clegg III, An Original Man: The Life and Times of Elijah Muhammad (1997)

Rodney P. Collins with A. Peter Bailey, Seventh Child: A Family Memoir of Malcolm X (2002)

Joshua Hammer, The Bad-Ass Librarians of Timbuktu and Their Race to Save the World’s Most Precious Manuscripts (Simon & Schuster, 2016)

Sh. Mahmoud Andrade Ibrahim al Amreeki, The Dar ul Islam Movement; An American Odyssey Revisited (2010)

Omar ibn Said (ed. Ala Alryyes), A Muslim American Slave: The Life of Omar ibn Said (2011)

James H. Johnston, From Slave Ship to Harvard: Yarrow Mamout and the History of an African American Family (2012)

Robin Law and Paul E. Lovejoy (editors), The Biography of Mahommah Gardo Baquaqua: His Passage from Slavery to Freedom in Africa and America (2006)

Florence H. Leninsohn, Looking for Farrakhan (2009)

Manning Marable, Malcolm X: A Life of Reinvention (2011)

Bruce Perry, Malcolm: The Life of a Man who Changed Black America (1992)

Abdullah Hakim Quick, In the Heart of a West African Islamic Revival: Shaykh Uthman Dan Fodio (1774-1804) (2007)

Patricia Raybon and Alana Raybon, Undivided: A Muslim Daughter, Her Christian Mother, Their Path to Peace (2015)

Russell Rickford, Betty Shabazz Surviving Malcolm X: A Journey of Strength from Wife to Widow to Heroine (2005)

Ilyasah Shabazz, Growing Up X (2003).

William Strickland, Malcolm X: Make it Plain (1994)

Sonsyrea Tate, Little X: Growing Up in the Nation of Islam (2005)

Malcolm X with Alex Haley, The Autobiography of Malcolm X



Hisham Aidi, Rebel Music: Race, Empire and the New Muslim Youth Culture (2014)

Hisham Aidi, “‘Verily, there is only one hip-hop Umma’: Islam, Cultural Protest and Urban Marginality”, Socialism and Democracy, 18/2 (2004), pp. 107-126

 H. Samy Alim, “Reinventing Islam with Unique Modern Tones” Muslim Hip Hop Artists as Verbal Mujahidin”, Souls: A Critical Journal of Black Politics, Culture, and Society, 8/4 (2006), pp. 45-58

Larry Blumenfeld, “Exploding Myths in Morocco and Senegal: Sufis Making Music after 9/11”, in Jonathan Ritter and J. Martin Daughtry (eds.), Music in Post-9/11 World (2012), pp. 209-224

Christopher W. Chase, “Prophetics in the Key of Allah: Towards an Understanding of Islam in Jazz”, Jazz Perspectives, 4/2 (2010), pp. 157-181

Jonathan Curiel, “Muslim Roots of the Blues/The Music of Famous American Blues Singers Reaches back through the South to the Culture of West Africa”, SF Gate (Aug. 15 2004)

Fatima El Shibli, “Islam and the Blues”, Souls: A Critical Journal of Black Politics, Culture, and Society, 9/2 (2007), pp. 162-170

Juan M. Floyd-Thomas, “A Jihad of Words” The Revolution of African American Islam and Contemporary Hip-Hop”, in Anthony Pinn (ed.), Noise and Spirit: The Religious and Spiritual Sensibilities of Rap Music (2003), pp. 49-70

Sara Hakeem Grewal, “Intra- and Interlingual Translation in Blackamerican Muslim Hip Hop”, African American Review, 46/1 (Spring 2013), pp. 37-54

Amy Jairazbhoy and Nazir Jairazbhoy, Sidi Sufis: African Indian Mystics of Gujarat

Deborah Kapchan, Traveling Spirit Masters: Moroccan Gnawa Trance and Music in the Global Marketplace (2007)

Su’ad Abdul Khabeer, Muslim Cool: Race, Religion, and Hip Hop in the United States (NYU Press, 2016)

Su’ad Abdul Khabeer, “Rep that Islam: The Rhyme and Reason of American Islamic Hip Hop”, The Muslim World 97/1 (2007), pp. 125-141

Annemette Kirkegaard, “Music Transcendence: Sufi Popular Performances in East”, Temenos: Nordic Journal of Comparative Religion, 48/1 (2012), pp. 29-48

Michael Muhammad Knight, The Five Percenters: Islam, Hip-hop and the Gods of New York (2008)

Beverly B. Mack, Muslim Women Sing: Hausa Popular Song (2004)

Anaya McMurray, “Hotep and Hip-Hop: Can Black Muslim Women Be Down with Hip-Hop”, Meridians: Feminism, Race, Transnationalism 8/1 (2007), pp. 74-92

Felicia Miyakawa. Five Percenter Rap: God Hop’s Music, Message and Black Muslim Mission (2005)

Naeem Mohaiemen, “Fear of a Muslim Planet: Hip-Hop’s Hidden History”

Abdoulaye Niang, “‘Preaching Music’ and Islam in Senegal: Can the Secular Mediate the Religious? The Case of Rap and Mbalax Music”, African Communication Research, 2/1 (2009), pp. 61-84

Michael Olútáò Olátúnjí, “Modern Trends in the Islamized Music of the Traditional Yorùbá”, Matatu-Journal for African Culture and Society, 40/1 (2012), pp. 447-455

Ari Poutiainen and Inka Rantakallio, “Discursive Construction of African-American Identities and Spirituality: A Comparison of Muslim Hip Hop and 1960s Jazz Avant-Garde”, Popular Music and Society, 17 (June 2015), pp. 1-16

Ana Sobral, “‘Unlikely MCs’: Hip hop and the Performance of Islamic Feminism”, European Journal of English Studies, 16/3 (2012), pp. 259-271


Journals, Zines, and Magazines

African Times and Orient Review

  • Pan-African and pan-Asian journal founded in 1912

Azizah Magazine:

  • A magazine for Muslim women by Muslim women

The Final Call

  • The official newspaper of the Nation of Islam under Minister Louis Farrakhan


Muslim Journal


Somali Semantics:

  • A zine that explores conversations around identity making and diaspora


Websites and Blogs


The African Diaspora in the Indian Ocean World:

Brother Jesse Blog:

Fit Muslimah:

Hagar Lives:

Muslim ARC:

Official Website of Dawud Walid:

Precious Speaks:

Race + Gender+ Faith:

Sapelo Square, An Online Resource for African American Islam:

Struggling Hijabi:

Truth to Power: A Center of Black Muslim Thought, History and Philosophy:

Zaheer Ali:



#BeingBlackAndMuslim (created by Muslim ARC)

#BlackMuslimFuture (created by Muslim ARC)

#BlackMuslimFamily (created by Kameelah M. Rashad)

#BlackMuslimRamadan (created by Donna Auston)

#BlackOutEid (created by @krennylavitz)

#BombBlackHijabis (created by @safuratumbles and @afrohijab)

#JusticeOrElse (created by NOI)

#MuslimCool (created by Su’ad Abdul Khabeer)

#OurThreeBrothers (created by Tariq Toure)

#XSpeaks (created by Nsenga Knight)


Poetry and Spoken Word

Brother Dash, Spoken Soul (2009)

Emi Mahmoud, “The Colors We Ascribe” (2015)


Performance Art

Nsenga Knight, X Speaks:



Beeta Baghoolizadeh, “Picturing the Other: Race and Afro-Iranians in Documentary Photography”

Andrew Courtney, Guardians of the Mosque: African Palestinians of Jerusalem

Amaal Said: and


Radio Shows

The Hanif J. Williams Show:

Mornings with Mubarakah Radio:  


Movies, Documentaries, and Television

Afro-Iranian Lives (2011),

Adama (2011)

  • The documentary chronicles Adama Bah’s experience with Islampophobia when federal agents raided her home in 2005

Al Nisa: Black Muslim Women in Atlanta’s Gay Mecca (2013)

  • “The story of how filmmaker Red Summer brought five women together who sought to establish a community, where there was none, for Black Muslim Lesbians in Atlanta.”


  • Biography of Muhammad Ali

Ask A Muslim (2012)

·         Documentary webs series that showcases Black Islam in the US

Bilal (forthcoming)

  • Animated film inspired by the story of Bilal ibn Rabah, one of the Prophet Muhammad’s closest companions

Bilal’s Stand (2010)

  • A high schooler has to determine if he’ll continue with the family business or follow his own dreams to attend college

The Book of Negroes (2015)

  • Focuses on an enslaved African woman and her fight to return home

Chrysalis (2011)

  • Story of Jamal, a Muslim man in Baltimore, who balances his life as a young father and drug dealer


Death of a Prophet (1981)

  • Focuses on the final year of Malcolm X’s life

Hip Hop Hijabis (2015)

  • Documentary on British rap duo

The Greatest (1977)

  • Biography of Muhammad Ali, starring Muhammad Ali

Jinn (forthcoming)

  • “A shape-shifting, pepperoni-loving black teenage Instagram celebrity converts to Islam.  Here’s what happens.”

Journey to Timbuktu (2013)

The King of South Shields (2008)

  • Experimental documentary focusing on the day that Muhammad Ali visited a British Yemeni Community in 1977

Malcolm X (1992)

Mooz-Lum (2010)

  • “Amid a strict Muslim rearing and a social life he's never had, Tariq enters college confused. New peers, family and mentors help him find his place, but the 9-11 attacks force him to face his past and make the biggest decisions of his life.”

Naz and Maalik (2016)!about/cdyi

  • Two closeted Black Muslim teens deal with FBI surveillance

Prince Among Slaves (2014)

  • Documentary on Abdul Rahman Sori narrated by Yasiin Bey

Roots (1977)

  • The story of Alex Haley’s family, starting with his African Muslim Ancestor, Kunta Kinte

Roots (2016)

Sleeper Cell (2005-2006)

  • A Muslim FBI agent goes undercover to infiltrate a sleeper cell in the U.S.

The Siddi, An African Community in India

Timbuktu (2014)

  • The story of a family’s life during the occupation of Timbuktu, Mali by the Ansar Dine

Traitor (2008)

  • “When straight arrow FBI agent Roy Clayton heads up the investigation into a dangerous international conspiracy, all clues seem to lead back to former U.S. Special Operations officer, Samir Horn.”


 If you would like to contribute to this project, post your recommendations on Twitter using #BlackIslamSyllabus or email me at